Create a key Value storage using Golang – Part 2

In the previous blog I have discussed about how to make a key-value storage with a in memory storage. Now I am going to discuss about how you can extend this to use a file system storage.

Let’s first define our structure which is going to hold the information about the storage –

type DiskFS struct {
	FS             filesystem.Fs
	RootFolderName string
}

Now for this project we are going to create our own filesystem implementation we can use afero but I decided to use my own implementation for more learning.

First create a directory in the root folder called filesystem and create a file called fs.go and write the following code

package filesystem

import (
	"io"
	"os"
)

type FileSystem struct {
	Fs
}

type File interface {
	io.Closer
	io.Reader
	io.ReaderAt
	io.Seeker
	io.Writer
	io.WriterAt

	Name() string
	Readdir(count int) ([]os.FileInfo, error)
	Stat() (os.FileInfo, error)
	Sync() error
	WriteString(s string) (ret int, err error)
}

type Fs interface {
	Create(name string) (File, error)
	Mkdir(name string, perm os.FileMode) error
	Open(name string) (File, error)
	OpenFile(name string, flag int, perm os.FileMode) (File, error)
	Stat(name string) (os.FileInfo, error)
	Remove(name string) error
}

Now as we are going to use os module to implement the filesystem create a file called osfs.go and write the below code

package filesystem

import (
	"os"
)

type OsFs struct {
	Fs
}

// Return a File System for OS
func NewOsFs() Fs {
	return &OsFs{}
}

func (OsFs) Create(name string) (File, error) {
	file, err := os.Create(name)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return file, nil
}

func (OsFs) Open(name string) (File, error) {
	file, err := os.Open(name)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return file, err
}

func (OsFs) OpenFile(name string, flag int, perm os.FileMode) (File, error) {
	file, err := os.OpenFile(name, flag, perm)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return file, nil
}

func (OsFs) Mkdir(name string, perm os.FileMode) error {
	return os.Mkdir(name, perm)
}

func (OsFs) Stat(name string) (os.FileInfo, error) {
	return os.Stat(name)
}

func (OsFs) Remove(name string) error {
	return os.Remove(name)
}

Now let’s create utility functions to handle some situations. create a utils.go file and write the code

package filesystem

import (
	"os"
)

func DirExists(fs Fs, name string) (bool, error) {
	file, err := fs.Stat(name)
	if err == nil && file.IsDir() {
		return true, nil
	}
	if os.IsNotExist(err) {
		return false, nil
	}
	return false, err
}

func Exists(fs Fs, name string) (bool, error) {
	_, err := fs.Stat(name)
	if err == nil {
		return true, nil
	}
	if os.IsNotExist(err) {
		return false, nil
	}
	return false, err
}

func ReadDir(fs Fs, dirName string) ([]os.FileInfo, error) {
	dir, err := fs.Open(dirName)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	defer dir.Close()
	list, err := dir.Readdir(-1)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return list, nil
}

func ReadFile(fs Fs, name string) ([]byte, error) {
	file, err := fs.Open(name)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	defer file.Close()
	data, err := os.ReadFile(name)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return data, nil
}

Ok so our filesystem is done. Now it’s time to write the code for file system based storage implementation. Write the below code inside records.go file

// Return the Disk structure file system
func NewDisk(rootFolder string) *DiskFS {
	diskFs := filesystem.NewOsFs()
	ok, err := filesystem.DirExists(diskFs, rootFolder)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Dir exists: %v", err)
	}
	if !ok {
		err := diskFs.Mkdir(rootFolder, os.ModePerm)
		if err != nil {
			log.Fatalf("Create dir: %v", err)
		}
	}
	return &DiskFS{FS: diskFs, RootFolderName: rootFolder}
}

// Store key, value in the file system
func (d *DiskFS) Store(key, val string) {
	file, err := d.FS.Create(d.RootFolderName + "/" + key)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Create file: %v", err)
	}
	defer file.Close()

	_, err = file.Write([]byte(val))
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Writing file: %v", err)
	}
}

func (d *DiskFS) List() map[string]string {
	m := make(map[string]string, 2)
	dir, err := filesystem.ReadDir(d.FS, d.RootFolderName)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Error reading the directory: %v", err)
	}

	for _, fileName := range dir {
		content, err := filesystem.ReadFile(d.FS, d.RootFolderName+"/"+fileName.Name())
		if err != nil {
			log.Fatalf("Error reading the file: %v", err)
		}
		m[fileName.Name()] = string(content)
	}
	return m
}

func (d *DiskFS) Get(key string) (string, error) {
	ok, err := filesystem.Exists(d.FS, d.RootFolderName+"/"+key)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("File exist: %v", err)
	}

	if ok {
		file, err := filesystem.ReadFile(d.FS, d.RootFolderName+"/"+key)
		if err != nil {
			log.Fatalf("Error reading the file: %v", err)
		}
		return string(file), nil
	}
	return "", errors.New("key not found")
}

func (d *DiskFS) Delete(key string) error {
	ok, err := filesystem.Exists(d.FS, d.RootFolderName+"/"+key)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("File exist: %v", err)
	}
	if ok {
		err = d.FS.Remove(d.RootFolderName + "/" + key)
		if err != nil {
			log.Fatalf("Delete file err: %v", err)
		}
		return nil
	}
	return errors.New("key not found")
}

Now if you run the app with -storage-type=disk flag you can access all the file system based operation and you can see a directory gets created called storage and inside it the file created and in the file the content is the value.

In the next part I am going to write the tests for the application.

Create a key Value storage using Golang – Part 1

A few days back I gave a interview in a company for Golang developer intern. There they asked me about a lot of questions and some I cracked and some I couldn’t cracked. The things I failed miserably was Go interfaces and Go Concurrency(Channels & atomic package). I took it as a motivation and learnt the Go interface again and wrote a blog on that. Now It was time for me to develop a project so my knowledge become more concrete. Nabarun gave a idea to make a key-value storage using Go that will support multiple storage types.

So I started building the project. First create a directory api/models from the root of your directory. Then create a file called records.go and write the following code –

type InMemory struct {
	Data map[string]string `json:"data"`
}

This code will be responsible for in memory storage of the key – value storage. Now lets define some interface that will be help us when we will be enhancing our app to support more storage systems like file structure. Add the following code in records.go

type StorageSetter interface {
	Store(string, string)
}

type StorageGetter interface {
	List() map[string]string
	Get(string) (string, error)
}

type StorageDestroyer interface {
	Delete(string) error
}

type Storage interface {
	StorageSetter
	StorageGetter
	StorageDestroyer
}

Now let’s see why I have written multiple interface like setter and Getter? Because it is always best practice to keep the interface small. It actually helps increasing abstraction.

Now let’s define a helper function in records.go that will return the InMemory structs.

// Return In Memory struct
func NewCache() *InMemory {
	return &InMemory{Data: make(map[string]string, 2)}
}

Let’s now create the methods in records.go which will do operations on the struct –

func (r *InMemory) Store(key, val string) {
	r.Data[key] = val
}

func (r *InMemory) List() map[string]string {
	return r.Data
}

func (r *InMemory) Get(key string) (string, error) {
	val, ok := r.Data[key]
	if !ok {
		return "", errors.New("key not found")
	}
	return val, nil
}

func (r *InMemory) Delete(key string) error {
	_, ok := r.Data[key]
	if !ok {
		return errors.New("key not found")
	}
	delete(r.Data, key)
	return nil
}

Now let’s define our server so create a directory api/controllers and create base.go file inside it. And write the code inside it.

type Server struct {
	Router *http.ServeMux
	Cache  models.Storage
}

This Server struct will contain dependency of the server which is typically the router and the storage interface.

Now create a server.go inside the api directory and write the code –

package api

import (
	"flag"

	"github.com/aniruddha2000/goEtcd/api/controllers"
)

var server controllers.Server

// Initialize and run the server
func Run() {
	var storageType string

	flag.StringVar(&storageType, "storage-type", "in-memory",
		"Define the storage type that will be used in the server. By defaut the value is in-memory.")
	flag.Parse()

	server.Initialize(storageType)
	server.Run("8888")
}

Here you can see it is taking the flag from the command line and passing it in the Initialize method and calling Run method to run the server in the port 8888. Now let’s define these two Initialize & Run method in the base.go file –

func (s *Server) Initialize(storageType string) {
	s.Router = http.NewServeMux()

	switch storageType {
	case "in-memory":
		s.Cache = models.NewCache()
	case "disk":
		s.Cache = models.NewDisk()
	default:
		log.Fatal("Use flags `in-memory` or `disk`")
	}

	log.Printf("Starting server with %v storage", storageType)

	s.initializeRoutes()
}

// Run the server on desired port and logs the status
func (s *Server) Run(addr string) {
	cert, err := tls.LoadX509KeyPair("localhost.crt", "localhost.key")
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Couldn't load the certificate: %v", cert)
	}

	server := &http.Server{
		Addr:    ":" + addr,
		Handler: s.Router,
		TLSConfig: &tls.Config{
			Certificates: []tls.Certificate{cert},
		},
	}

	fmt.Println("Listenning to port", addr)
	log.Fatal(server.ListenAndServeTLS("", ""))
}

Here you can see Initialize method is setting the router for the server and then setting the storage for different storage and at the last it is initializing the routes.

In the Run method it is loading the certificate and setting up the server and running the server at the end.

Now let’s define initializeRoutes function that we saw in the last initialize method in the base.go. Create a routes.go file in side api/controllers

func (s *Server) initializeRoutes() {
	s.Router.HandleFunc("/record", s.Create)
	s.Router.HandleFunc("/records", s.List)
	s.Router.HandleFunc("/get/record", s.Get)
	s.Router.HandleFunc("/del/record", s.Delete)
}

Now we will see the implementation of the route controllers. Create a cache.go file inside the api/controllers and paste the below code –

package controllers

import (
	"log"
	"net/http"

	j "github.com/aniruddha2000/goEtcd/api/json"
)

func (s *Server) Create(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	if r.Method == "POST" {
		r.ParseForm()
		key := r.Form["key"]
		val := r.Form["val"]

		for i := 0; i < len(key); i++ {
			s.Cache.Store(key[i], val[i])
		}

		j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusCreated, "Record created")
	} else {
		j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusBadRequest, "POST Request accepted")
	}
}

func (s *Server) List(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	if r.Method == "GET" {
		records := s.Cache.List()
		j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusOK, records)
	} else {
		j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusBadRequest, "GET Request accepted")
	}
}

func (s *Server) Get(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	if r.Method == "GET" {
		keys, ok := r.URL.Query()["key"]
		if !ok || len(keys[0]) < 1 {
			log.Println("Url Param 'key' is missing")
			return
		}
		key := keys[0]

		val, err := s.Cache.Get(key)
		if err != nil {
			j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusNotFound, err.Error())
			return
		}
		j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{key: val})
	} else {
		j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusBadRequest, "POST Request accepted")
	}
}

func (s *Server) Delete(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	if r.Method == "DELETE" {
		keys, ok := r.URL.Query()["key"]
		if !ok || len(keys[0]) < 1 {
			log.Println("Url Param 'key' is missing")
			return
		}
		key := keys[0]

		err := s.Cache.Delete(key)
		if err != nil {
			j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusNotFound, err.Error())
			return
		}
		j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusNoContent, map[string]string{"data": "delete"})
	} else {
		j.JSON(w, r, http.StatusBadRequest, "DELETE Request accepted")
	}
}

Here you can see the controller that will handle different route traffics and call the record methods and doing the operations.

I have creates a helper JSON method to reduce redundant code while writing the route controllers. create a api/json directory and crate a json.go file. Paste the code below –

func JSON(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, statusCode int, data interface{}) {
	w.Header().Set("Location", fmt.Sprintf("%s%s", r.Host, r.RequestURI))
	w.WriteHeader(statusCode)
	json.NewEncoder(w).Encode(data)
}

In the next part I will walk you though how to extend this application to support disk based storage along side with In-Memory storage.

Golang Interface Simplified

What is Interface?

Interface is used for abstraction. It contains one or more method signatures. Below is an example of how we define interface.

type Human interface {
	speak()
}

Why we use interface?

In simple term interfaces are the contract for the methods for different structure type. To increase the code readability and maintenance we use interface. Let’s say there is Person datatype in my application and all the methods mentioned above actually implement the Person data type.

type Person struct {
	First string
	Last  string
}

Now let’s say the method mentioned in the interface actually implement the Person struct

func (p Person) speak() {
	fmt.Println("I am Person ", p.First)
}

Now the interesting part our software got a new requirement of adding another data type called SecretAgent.

type SecretAgent struct {
	Person Person
	Org    string
}

Now we define another method speak() for the SecretAgent data type.

func (s SecretAgent) speak() {
	fmt.Println("I am secret agent ", s.Person.First)
}

Now we can take the help of interface and the power of abstraction. We define a function that will take the interface and call the speak method.

func Earthling(h Human) {
	fmt.Println("Hey there I am from planet Earth")
	h.speak()
}

Understand what happened above? The Indian function take the human interface and call the speak method and we don’t have to specify for which data type the speak is going to work it will be managed by the go interfaces. So, it reduced a lot of hard coding and our design is future ready to accept more data type.

Let’s see the main function.

func main() {
	sa1 := SecretAgent{
		Person: Person{First: "James", Last: "Bond"},
		Org:    "MI6",
	}
	sa2 := SecretAgent{
		Person: Person{First: "Ajit", Last: "Doval"},
		Org:    "RAW",
	}
	p1 := Person{First: "Dr.", Last: "Strange"}

	Earthling(sa1)
	Earthling(sa2)
	Earthling(p1)
}